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  • 2014
    Pump Priming

    Influence of n-3FA intake on high-fat diet induced changes in anabolic signalling in healthy adults

    Recipient:
    Dr Oliver Witard
    Institution:
    University of Stirling
    City:
    Stirling
    Amount:
    £5,160
    Description: High calorie-high fat ‘westernized’ diets that lead to obesity may lead to impairments in the ability of our muscles to grow in response to nutrients. In this research project, first we plan to invest...
    Description: High calorie-high fat ‘westernized’ diets that lead to obesity may lead to impairments in the ability of our muscles to grow in response to nutrients. In this research project, first we plan to investigate the potential adverse effect that a high calorie-high fat diet may have on preserving normal quantities of muscle mass. We hypothesize that a high calorie-high fat diet will impair the capability of signalling proteins within skeletal muscle that control muscle growth to respond to nutrient provision. Therefore, we anticipate the capacity to maintain normal quantities of muscle mass will be reduced by a high calorie-high fat diet. Part 2 of this research project investigates the effectiveness of fish oil as an intervention to maintain muscle mass during high calorie-high fat dieting. By feeding fish oil, thereby increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids, we aimed to investigate the capacity for fish oil to maintain muscle mass during high calorie-high fat dieting. We hypothesize that feeding fish oils during high calorie-high fat dieting will help maintain the capability of signalling proteins within skeletal muscle that control muscle growth to respond to nutrient provision.
  • 2014
    Pump Priming

    Investigating inflammatory changes in human diabetic bladder dysfunction

    Recipient:
    Dr Andy Grant
    Institution:
    King’s College London
    City:
    London
    Amount:
    £17,360
    Description: Many people with diabetes are affected by some form of bladder dysfunction, where the bladder muscle becomes overactive and can cause urinary urgency (a sudden and intense urge to use the toilet), noc...
    Description: Many people with diabetes are affected by some form of bladder dysfunction, where the bladder muscle becomes overactive and can cause urinary urgency (a sudden and intense urge to use the toilet), nocturia (waking from sleep to urinate multiple times in a night) and urinary incontinence (leakage of urine). Together, these symptoms can dramatically reduce quality of life. Recent studies in patients with overactive bladder muscles (which can also occur without the presence of diabetes) and animal models of diabetic bladder dysfunction have identified altered levels of cytokines in urine and bladder tissue samples. These are a group of chemicals with important roles in regulating the immune system, which can also affect the behaviour of other organs, so they may cause the changes in bladder muscle activity. In this study we plan to collect samples of bladder tissue from patients with normal bladders and from patients with diabetes, in both cases with or without overactive bladders. By quantifying the amounts of cytokines in these tissue samples and comparing them to measurements of bladder function, we hope to further our understanding of the changes that occur in the bladder to cause the debilitating symptoms of diabetic bladder dysfunction.
  • 2014
    Pump Priming

    Reducing fear of hypoglycaemia in families and Improving metabolic control in Children and young people with diabetes (RICHes): A feasibility pilot study

    Recipient:
    Dr Deborah Christie
    Institution:
    University College London
    City:
    London
    Amount:
    £20,000
    Description: Fears about hypoglycaemia and associated seizures can result in blood glucose (BG) concentration being run higher than recommended. This fear is underpinned by a) anxiety about frequent monitoring; b)...
    Description: Fears about hypoglycaemia and associated seizures can result in blood glucose (BG) concentration being run higher than recommended. This fear is underpinned by a) anxiety about frequent monitoring; b) the relentless nature of daily management and c) lack of confidence that others are able or willing to provide appropriate care. The resulting higher HbA1c significantly increases the risk of long-term complications. This study will evaluate an intervention to reduce anxiety and increase confidence in self-management that will result in improved diabetes control for children and young people, and improved quality of life for the whole family.
  • 2014
    Pump Priming

    The prevalence and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Recipient:
    Dr William Alazawi
    Institution:
    Queen Mary University of London and Barts Health NHS Trust
    City:
    London
    Amount:
    £11,000
    Description: Deaths from liver disease are rising more rapidly than any other cause of death in the UK. The most common cause of chronic liver injury in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NA...
    Description: Deaths from liver disease are rising more rapidly than any other cause of death in the UK. The most common cause of chronic liver injury in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is found in up to 75% of patients with diabetes. NAFLD is a spectrum of disease that includes simple fat deposition to the more aggressive form involving inflammation and scarring in the liver (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer. The factors that determine whether an individual patient will develop the more aggressive NASH are not fully understood although a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors are likely to play a role. There has been recent interest in the effect of ethnicity in the progression of NAFLD and our group has recently reported that NAFLD is three times more common among patients of Bangladeshi origin compared to other ethnic groups – including other South Asian groups. Our aim is to study the degree to which NAFLD and NASH affect patients with diabetes from different ethnicities and to develop guidelines to help doctors manage patients with NAFLD in an ethnically diverse population, such as ours.
  • 2014
    The Professor David Matthews Non-Clinical Fellowship

    To use Mendelian randomisation to understanding the causal relationship between circulating biomarkers and Type 2 Diabetes in the UK Biobank.

    Recipient:
    Dr Jessica Tyrrell
    Institution:
    University of Exeter Medical School
    City:
    Exeter
    Amount:
    £172,389
    Description: Type 2 diabetes represents a huge health burden worldwide (in the UK, it costs the NHS £296 per second), and research is underway to determine how this burden can be reduced. It is a complex disease, ...
    Description: Type 2 diabetes represents a huge health burden worldwide (in the UK, it costs the NHS £296 per second), and research is underway to determine how this burden can be reduced. It is a complex disease, with many factors contributing to disease development. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that type 2 diabetes is associated with a myriad of biomarkers, often as a consequence, rather than cause of the disease process. Understanding which biomarkers play a causal role in type 2 diabetes is of critical importance for understanding disease aetiology, improving diagnosis, and successfully developing treatments. This study will use one of the largest UK population-based studies, the UK Biobank and apply genetic and statistical techniques to investigate the causal relationship between more than 40 biomarkers and type 2 diabetes. The size of UK Biobank will provide a powerful resource for these studies and enable us to draw robust conclusions about which biomarkers are causally linked to diabetes. This project will investigate causality using a Mendelian randomisation approach; a technique that has already helped further our understanding of type 2 diabetes aetiology. This project will be organised in three sequential stages. In Stage 1, we will investigate the association between biomarkers and incident (~3,500 January 2014) and prevalent type 2 diabetes cases (n=14,486) using regression models. In stage 2, we will identify genetic variants associated with our selected biomarkers using regression models. Finally in stage 3, we will utilise instrumental variable analysis to assess the causal relationship between circulating biomarkers and type 2 diabetes. This project will be of critical importance. Identifying the likely small number of biomarkers that truly influence disease aetiology will be incredibly important – it will highlight the pathways and systems that researchers and pharmaceutical companies should focus on if they want to prevent disease or improve treatments.

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